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A hernia is a protrusion or protrusion of any part of the body from its original position. In other words, a hernia is a dislocation of an organ from a body to an adjacent cavity or tissue that causes swelling or rupture.Hernia occurs when an area of a limb or tissue protrudes through a weak layer of muscle. Any part of the body where the tissue wall supporting a weak organ is weak; Hernia can occur. Chronic hernias usually occur in the abdomen, and can also be seen in the thighs, umbilicus, and groin area.


Types of hernias

Hernia disease can be classified according to the type of progression and its location. The prevalence of hernia in children, hernia in women and hernia in men varies according to the classification of hernia types.

Internal hernia:

If the hernia is protruding or protruding into the body, it is called an internal hernia.

External hernia:

If the hernia is protruding or protruding out of the body, it is called an external hernia. The hernia can be pushed out of the body through the muscle and can be seen under the skin.

1.Groin hernia or inguinal hernia

An inguinal hernia appears as a bulge in the groin or scrotum. Groin hernia is more common in men than women. This hernia occurs when part of the intestines or adipose tissue presses against a weakness or distress in the abdominal wall above the thigh.

2.Femoral hernia

A femoral hernia is a bulge in the upper thigh. The mass of this hernia will disappear by applying pressure or lying down, and may appear by coughing or squeezing. Hernias are more common in women than men.

3.Cleft hernia

An incisional hernia occurs at the site of abdominal surgery or laparoscopic surgery; Also known as a post-laparotomy hernia.

4.Umbilical hernia

A bulge around the umbilical region, consisting of a portion of the intestine or adipose tissue that protrudes through the abdominal wall near the umbilicus. Umbilical hernia is more common in children and infants under 6 months.




What causes a hernia?

The cause of a hernia is a combination of muscle weakness and pressure. Depending on the cause, the hernia may develop rapidly or over a long period of time. Naturally, the abdominal wall has areas that are likely to weaken. Anyone at any age can get a hernia.

Most hernias are congenital in children. In adults, natural weakness or pressure from lifting a heavy object, persistent coughing, difficulty defecating, or urinating can cause the abdominal wall to weaken or rupture.

Umbilical hernias have been reported more often in women than in men. Obesity, multiple pregnancies and intra-abdominal tumors are the causes of umbilical hernia in women.

* Causes of muscle weakness leading to hernia: 

Fracture of the abdominal wall,Congenital muscle defects,Age,Chronic cough,Injury due to surgery

* Factors that put pressure on our body and may cause hernias; Especially if our muscles are weak, these include:

Pregnancy,Constipation,Lifting heavy weights,Abdominal abscess,Sudden weight gain,Surgery,Persistent cough or sneezing

Hernia symptoms

The most common symptom of a hernia is a muscle or mass coming out of the affected area of the body. Hernias can cause very severe abdominal pain. You may also need emergency surgery if other serious problems occur.

The most common symptoms of a hernia are:

* Pain in the groin area that gets worse with bending or lifting heavy objects.

* Presence of a painful lump or bulge in the groin or abdomen

* Presence of painful mass in the testicular area

* Feeling heavy in the abdomen

* Burning or pain at the wound site

* Chest pain

* Difficulty swallowing

* Abdominal pain

Treatment of hernia

Almost all types of hernias require surgery. Do we need treatment or not? It depends on the size of the hernia and the severity of the symptoms. Treatment options for hernias include lifestyle changes, medications, or surgery, each of which is described below.

1.Lifestyle changes for hernia treatment include:

- Dietary changes may often relieve the symptoms of a hernia; But it does not eliminate the hernia.

- Avoid large or overeating meals.

- Keep your body weight in a healthy range

- Some exercises may help strengthen the muscles around the abdomen and reduce the symptoms of a hernia. However, sometimes the exercises performed can increase the pressure in this area and actually cause more hernias.


2.Pharmacological treatment of hernia

Some painkillers, such as acetaminophen, can relieve the discomfort and pain of a hernia.


3.Surgery to treat hernia

If the hernia is growing or causing pain, your doctor may decide to perform surgery.

Hernias can be performed with open surgery or laparoscopy. In open surgery, which may be performed under local anesthesia or general anesthesia, the surgeon makes an incision in the groin area and returns the protruding tissue to the abdomen. Sometimes the doctor uses mesh (artificial bed to increase the strength of abdominal tissue) to strengthen muscle weakness.After surgery, our doctor encourages us to move as soon as possible, but it may take a few weeks for us to resume our normal activities.


In a laparoscopic procedure that requires general anesthesia; The surgeon accesses the abdomen through several small holes in the surface of the abdomen, and the surgery is performed using minimally invasive laparoscopic tubes.

People who undergo laparoscopy may experience less discomfort after surgery and the wound will heal faster.