Release of intestinal adhesions
Bowel obstruction and adhesions occur when the small intestine or large intestine is partially or completely blocked. Obstruction of the intestine prevents food, liquids and gases from passing through it naturally. The small intestine is a long, tubular organ inside the abdomen that takes food that has been partially digested from the stomach and, after it is fully digested, transports the fully digested food to the large intestine. The clone is the longest part of the large intestine that absorbs water and nutrients left in the food received from the small intestine and is almost completely digested, and transfers the remaining waste (feces) to the rectum. Complications of intestinal obstruction may also be called intestinal obstruction or malignant intestinal obstruction.
Intestinal obstruction and adhesions can be caused by the following factors:
- Tumors that block the intestinal tract.
- Wounds or adhesions (a strip-shaped connection between two points in the intestinal tissue) at the site of an injury that remains after colon or small bowel surgery.
- Intestinal damage due to radiation therapy
- The effect of certain drugs such as narcotics, antidiarrheal drugs and some chemotherapeutic drugs that affect the gastrointestinal tract.
- Stool compression in which a large, dry, hard mass of stool forms due to chronic constipation inside the rectum, blocking the passage of the large intestine.
Different types of cancer can also cause bowel obstruction, the most important of which are cancers of the stomach, colorectal, small intestine, uterus, prostate, bladder, and ovary. Other cancers that spread to the abdomen, as well as advanced cancers that put pressure on the large and small intestines, can also lead to intestinal obstruction and adhesions.
The most important symptoms of intestinal obstruction and adhesions are:
- stomach ache
- Persistent abdominal muscle cramps
- Severe swelling or bloating of the abdomen
- Dry mouth
- Diarrhea (loose stools may be excreted from solid waste in the large intestine)
- Stool immobility in the large intestine and changes in bowel habits
- Inability to expel gas or flatulence
- Bad breath
Bowel obstruction can cause a small hole in the small or large intestine called an intestinal ulcer. Making such a hole in the intestinal wall causes its contents to leak into the abdominal cavity and cause an intestinal infection. This type of infection is called peritonitis. If you notice any of the above symptoms, see your doctor immediately.
Your doctor will diagnose the cause of the intestinal obstruction and adhesion by performing an examination. Your doctor will ask you questions about your symptoms, changes in bowel habits, medications, and treatments you may be using during the examination. It also performs a physical examination, during which it touches your abdomen, listens to the sound of bowel movements, and performs a DRE (Digital Rectal Examination) test to check for congestion in the large intestine. In addition to medical examinations, you may need to have the following tests or procedures to help diagnose intestinal obstruction and adhesions:
- X-ray of the abdomen
- CT Scan
- Upper GI series serial imaging
- Barium Enema
Basically, the possibility of preventing intestinal obstruction and adhesions depends on the causative agent. In fact, some cases of intestinal obstruction can not be prevented in any way. However, you can reduce the risk of intestinal obstruction by doing the following:
- Treat hernias and similar injuries as soon as possible before the bowel obstructs.
- Reduce the risk of stool compression and diverticulosis (wall protrusion) of the colon through:
* Eat plenty of fiber-rich foods
* Drink plenty of water and fluids
* Exercise regularly
Once the cause of the bowel obstruction or adhesion has been identified, your doctor will suggest ways to treat the condition. The proposed methods can be a combination of two or more of the following methods.
Rest the intestines:
Your doctor may advise you to rest your bowels for a few days. For this purpose, you should not eat food and fluids by mouth for several days. During this time, fluids are given by intravenous (IV) injection to provide the body with the water it needs and to balance the electrolytes. Electrolytes are responsible for transporting nutrients to and from the cells and removing waste products from the cells. The function of these electrolytes is to maintain the balance of fluids in the body and also allow the muscles of the body to function properly.
Release the pressure on the abdomen:
Your doctor may prescribe a nasogastric tube (NG) to help relieve your bloating and diarrhea. The NG tube enters the throat through the nose and from there into the stomach. This tube is used to remove the contents of the stomach.There is another method of intubation, in which a tube is inserted through the anus into the large intestine to release pressure from the accumulation of fluid and gas.
Antibiotics can be used to treat peritonitis (infection of the abdominal cavity) caused by the contents of the intestine leaking into the abdominal cavity. Your doctor may also prescribe medications to help relieve pain and vomiting.
If bowel obstruction and adhesions cannot be treated with other methods, you may need surgery to treat it. Intestinal obstruction surgery is a surgery performed to remove the obstruction of the intestines, which prevents the contents of the intestine from passing freely through it. The purpose of this surgery is to relieve abdominal pain, abdominal cramps, swelling and other symptoms of partial intestinal cramps. In the case of complete intestinal obstruction, as it can be a very dangerous and life-threatening complication, surgery must be performed urgently.
The type of surgery used to remove the bowel obstruction depends on the cause of the blockage. Intestinal obstruction may be mechanical and may be due to constipation, hernia, scar tissue from other surgeries, cancerous tumors, or volvulus (intestinal torsion). On the other hand, intestinal obstruction in children can be caused by disease, infection, imbalance of chemical hormones and the use of drugs.
Some of the common procedures performed to remove intestinal obstruction and adhesions are:
1- Removal of the obstruction by means of a tube that enters the intestine through the nose or anus and travels to the site of the obstruction in the intestine.
2- Laparoscopy: A minimally invasive surgery in which a small incision is made in the abdomen to insert a laparoscope or other surgical instrument to remove an obstruction in the bowel. A laparoscope is a small instrument in the shape of a small telescope.
3- Colon Removal : In this procedure, a piece of the colon is removed.
4-Removal of small intestine : In this operation, a piece of small intestine is removed.