Each ovary is the same size as an almond. Eggs grow in the ovaries and mature. Adult eggs are released during menstruation during the female reproductive years and before menopause.
Cysts are sacs that are filled with fluid. Sometimes it is a bloody or purulent fluid that makes the patient's condition a little more dangerous and worse.
Ovarian cysts are similar. In ovarian cysts, bags with thin membranes fill with fluid; these fluid-filled sacs eventually settle in the ovary. Ovarian cysts can be the size of a pea or the size of an orange. Ovarian cysts often develop during ovulation (infertility).Most ovarian cysts are small and harmless and recur frequently during the menstrual cycle during a woman's reproductive years. On the other hand, it is possible to form these bags full of fluid at any age.
Types of ovarian cysts:
Ovarian cysts and their incidence are not always the same in women. There are several types of ovarian cysts. Some of them have severe symptoms and pain and others do not cause any symptoms for the person.
Simple cyst (physiological cyst):
In physiological cysts, the eggs that need to be released monthly are not released and grow by 4 to 5 cm. In simple cysts, a sac full of water forms in the ovary, often without physical pain, and is characterized only by delayed menstruation.
Non-physiological cysts (endomexy cysts):
In some cases, ovarian cysts have no physiological roots, and whenever a patient becomes menstruating, this cyst is present in the lining of the uterus, called an endomexy cyst. The inside of this cyst is full of blood, and because blood has no way out, it not only does not shrink with the menstrual cycle; They also grow up. This condition is called endomycosis and can not be treated with medication.
Follicular cysts arise from the growth of a follicle. The follicle is a sac full of natural fluid that contains an egg. Normally, when an egg has matured and wants to leave the follicle, the follicle opens and releases the egg. If the follicle does not open for any reason, a follicular cyst develops. This type of ovarian cyst usually goes away within 3 months (often spontaneously).
Hemorrhagic ovarian cyst:
Hemorrhagic cysts are caused by bleeding in ovarian cysts. These cysts are caused by problems with ovulation and only happen to women who have not had menopause.
Ovarian cysts sometimes cause abnormal growth of other tissues in the body, such as hair or teeth. Cysts with these abnormal tissues are called dermoid cysts.
Polycystic ovaries (inactive cysts):
Multiple small cysts that form in the ovaries and are probably caused by hormonal disorders. This condition is medically termed polycystic ovary syndrome.
symptoms of ovarian cysts
Most premenopausal women may develop ovarian cysts. In most cases, the patient may not be aware of the cyst and may have the cyst accidentally detected on an ultrasound; But in some cases, the symptoms of ovarian cysts are obvious and severe. However, the symptoms of ovarian cysts include the following:
* Abdominal bloating or swelling in the abdominal area
* Painful bowel movements
* Pelvic pain before or after the menstrual cycle
* Painful intercourse
* Pain in the abdomen, back or thighs
* Breast tenderness
* nausea and vomiting
Symptoms of severe ovarian cysts that require immediate medical attention include:
- Severe pelvic pain
- Weakness or dizziness
- Rapid and continuous breathing
These symptoms may indicate a ruptured cyst or torsion of the ovary. Both complications can have serious consequences if left untreated.
Methods of diagnosing ovarian cysts
Pelvic ultrasound: In ultrasound, high-frequency sound waves are sent to the body using a transducer, and the reflection of these waves creates an image of the uterus and ovaries on a video monitor. The doctor analyzes the images to determine if there is a cyst in the ovary. With the help of ultrasound, the exact location of the cyst and the type of cyst and what materials it is filled with can be easily identified.
Laparoscopy: In this procedure, a laparoscope, which is a thin, thin rod with a camera, is sent through a small incision into the body. With this method, the doctor can easily see the ovaries and can remove the ovarian cyst. This diagnostic method is actually a type of surgery and requires anesthesia to perform it.
CA 125 blood test or cancer antigen 125: This method measures the level of a specific protein in the blood called cancer antigen 125 (cancer antigen 125). The presence of this protein in the blood of women is usually a sign of ovarian cancer. If the cyst is solid and the patient has a high risk of ovarian cancer, the doctor will do the test. In non-cancerous conditions and diseases such as endometriosis, uterine fibroids and pelvic inflammatory disease, the level of this protein in the blood will also increase.
CT scan: A body imaging device used to create cross-sectional images of internal organs.
MRI: An experiment that uses magnetic fields to produce deep images of internal organs.
What to do to treat ovarian cysts?
Treatment for ovarian cysts is very wide and may vary greatly from person to person. Therefore, people with this disease should not compare themselves in terms of treatment.
The doctor's main goal in treating patients is to maintain order during menstruation. Therefore, it is necessary to cooperate properly with your doctor and take the prescribed treatments and pills according to the doctor's instructions. Depending on the person's age, the type and size of the cyst, as well as the signs and symptoms that the person shows, the treating physician applies different treatments.
Careful monitoring of the patient: In many cases, you will have to wait and have diagnostic tests again after a few months to see if there is a sign of a cyst. In this method, if the person does not show any specific symptoms or the ultrasound shows only a small, simple and fluid-filled cyst, the patient should be closely monitored so that in case of any change, other treatments can be performed on him. Therefore, the patient is asked to see a doctor again after a while and to give another pelvic ultrasound to carefully examine the cyst resizing.
Medication: In this method, hormonal drugs such as contraceptives are prescribed for the person to prevent the recurrence of ovarian cysts. It should be noted that birth control pills are not able to shrink ovarian cysts in the body.
Surgery: Doctors recommend surgery if the ovarian cyst is large, non-functional, is constantly growing and enlarging, remains in the body during two or three menstrual cycles, or causes severe pain. In surgery, the ovarian cyst will be removed from the body. Ovarian cysts can often be removed without completely removing the ovary (ovarian cystectomy). If an ovary needs to be removed, in many cases only the ovary that contains the cyst is removed and the other ovary remains intact. This is called an oophorectomy or removal of one of the ovaries. If the cysts form cancerous lumps. Your doctor will ask you to see a gynecologist.
If the cysts are cancerous, sometimes the entire uterus, both the ovaries, and the fallopian tubes are removed in a procedure called a total hysterectomy. After this surgery, the patient should undergo additional chemotherapy and radiation therapy. Surgery is also needed if ovarian cysts develop in the body after menopause.