Today Thursday Nov 26, 2020

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Symptoms of breast cancer


The most well-known symptom of breast cancer is the presence of a lump or bulge in the breast tissue. While most women see a gynecologist after seeing these symptoms, they should be aware of other changes in the breasts and nipples.

Following the existence of different types of breast cancer, there is a different range of symptoms associated with each of these types of disease. For example, invasive ductal carcinoma (IDC) is a cancer that develops in the ducts of the breast and may lead to a distinct, palpable mass in the breast. Invasive lobular carcinoma (ILC) occurs in the milk-producing glands and may lead to thickening of the breast.

 

Early warning signs of breast cancer

The symptoms of breast tumors vary from person to person. Some of the early warning signs of breast cancer include:

- Skin changes such as swelling, redness, or other obvious differences in one or both breasts

- Breast augmentation or deformity

- Change the appearance of the tip of one or both breasts

- Non-dairy nipple discharge

- Feeling general pain in any part of the breast

- Feeling of a lump or lump, inside or on the surface of the breast

*More specific symptoms of invasive breast cancer include:

- Itching or inflammation of the chest

- Change the color of the breasts

- Breast enlargement or deformity (in a short time)

- Different breast touch (breasts may be stiff, tender or swollen)

- Layering or scaling of the nipple skin

- The presence of a mass in the breast or an increase in the thickness of the breast

- Redness or pores of the breast skin (like orange peel)

It is important to note that other benign diseases may have caused these symptoms. For example, changes in the skin texture of the breasts may be due to skin conditions such as eczema, and swollen lymph nodes may be due to breast infections or other unrelated diseases. Seeing a gynecologist, obstetrician, or infertility doctor to evaluate your symptoms will let you know if your condition is worrying or not.

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Symptoms of invasive breast cancer:

  • The presence of a lump or
  • bulge in the breast
  • Swelling of all or part of the breast, even if no lump is felt
  • Inflammation or porosity of the skin
  • Chest or nipple pain
  • Nipple contraction (inward rotation)
  • Redness, flaking or thickening of the skin on the breast or nipple
  • Nipple discharge
  • Existence of a mass or swelling in the axillary lymph nodes

 

Symptoms of ductal carcinoma:

Non-invasive ductal carcinoma (DCIS) does not cause any symptoms. Patients may rarely feel a lump in their chest or see discharge from their nipple. However, most cases of DCIS are diagnosed by mammography.

 

Symptoms of lobular carcinoma:

Non-invasive lobular carcinoma (LCIS) does not cause any symptoms and can not be detected by mammogram. The disease is usually diagnosed following a breast biopsy to diagnose other conditions, such as breast lumps. The appearance of breast cells in a person with LCIS is abnormal under a microscope.

 

Symptoms of Inflammatory Breast Cancer:

Inflammatory breast cancer, unlike other breast cancers, rarely results in the formation of a lump in the breast and may not be detectable on a mammogram. Symptoms of inflammatory breast cancer include:

  • Redness, swelling and itching of the breast skin that is sensitive to touch
  • The surface of the breast may look uneven and bulging or porous, similar to orange peel (this mark is often referred to as "orange peel").
  • Feeling of heaviness, burning or pain in one chest
  • Clear size difference between the two breasts
  • Reverse nipple direction (nipple tilted inward)
  • No mass is felt on personal breast examination
  • Swollen lymph nodes below the arm and / or above the clavicle
  • After a course of antibiotic treatment, the symptoms still do not go away

Inflammatory breast cancer, unlike other breast cancers, rarely forms a specific mass in the breast. Therefore, personal or clinical examination or even mammography may not be able to diagnose inflammatory breast cancer. Ultrasound may not be able to diagnose this cancer. However, the changes that appear on the surface of the breasts due to inflammatory breast cancer can also be seen with the naked eye.

The symptoms of inflammatory breast cancer can get worse quickly, and the disease can spread quickly. If there is any change in the texture or appearance of the breasts, you should see a doctor immediately.

Redness, swelling, itching, and burning of the breasts of pregnant or lactating women are usually signs of a breast infection, such as mastitis, which can be treated with antibiotics. If you are not pregnant or breastfeeding and you have these symptoms, your doctor will test you for inflammatory breast cancer.

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Symptoms of metastatic breast cancer:

The symptoms of metastatic breast cancer depend on the stage of the cancer as well as where the cancer has spread. Sometimes metastatic cancers show no symptoms.

- If the cancer has metastasized to the breast or chest wall, symptoms such as pain, discharge from the nipple, or a lump in the breast or armpit, or an increase in the thickness of these areas may be seen.

- If the cancer has metastasized to the bones, you may experience symptoms such as pain, bone fractures, constipation, or loss of consciousness due to elevated calcium levels.

- If tumors develop in the lungs, you may experience symptoms such as shortness of breath or shortness of breath, cough, chest wall pain, or extreme tiredness.

- In case of liver infection, symptoms may include nausea, extreme tiredness, increased abdominal width and swelling of the legs and arms due to fluid retention, and jaundice or itchy skin.

- Symptoms include pain, distress, forgetfulness, headache, blurred vision or diplopia, speech problems, movement problems, or seizures if the cancer has spread to the brain and spinal cord and a tumor has formed.

 

Symptoms of papillary carcinoma

If you have papillary carcinoma, a routine mammogram may be able to detect its progression. Symptoms of this disease, if present, may be as follows:

Mass: Papillary carcinoma is often felt in the form of a cyst or a 2-3 cm mass under the hand during personal examination.

Nipple discharge: About 50% of papillary carcinomas form under the nipple and therefore cause bloody discharge from the nipple.

 

Symptoms of triple negative breast cancer

Although triple negative breast cancer does not look different from other breast cancers, this type of cancer has several unique features, such as the following:

Receptor status: A negative test for estrogen, progesterone, and HER2 receptors means that hormone therapy is not a successful treatment for breast cancer. Instead, triple-negative breast cancer treatments include chemotherapy, targeted therapy, and radiation therapy.

More aggressive: Triple negative breast cancer is more likely to spread and come back than other types of breast cancer. The risk of recurrence of this cancer decreases a few years after the end of treatment.

Cell type and size: Triple-negative breast cancer cells appear to be basal-like; This means that these cancer cells are similar to the basal cells lining the mammary ducts. These cells may also appear taller than normal, healthy cells.


Symptoms of breast cancer in men

The symptoms of breast cancer in men may be similar to those in women. It may also include the following:

  • The presence of usually painless lumps in the chest
  • Increase breast thickness
  • Changes in the skin of the breast or nipple, such as fading, wrinkling, or redness
  • Discharge from the nipple
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Breast cancer surgery


 Breast surgery is one of the most important methods of treating breast cancer. Breast cancer surgery involves draining the cancer with a single operation. Breast cancer surgery may be used alone or in combination with other treatments such as chemotherapy, hormone therapy and radiation therapy.

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For people who are at very high risk for breast cancer, breast cancer surgery may be an option to reduce their risk of developing breast cancer in the future.

Breast cancer surgery has several methods, including:

  • Surgery to remove lymph nodes near the breasts

  • Surgery to remove the entire breast (mastectomy)
  • Breast reconstruction surgery after mastectomy
  • Surgery to remove part of breast tissue (lumpectomy)

The type of surgery appropriate for breast cancer depends on the size and stage of the cancer, other treatment options, and the patient's goals and preferences.

 

lumpectomy:

A lumpectomy is surgery to remove cancer or other abnormal tissue from the breast. lumpectomy is also referred to as breast protection surgery or local resection because, unlike mastectomy, only part of the breast is removed. Doctors may also perform a lumpectomy as a biopsy for sampling. During a lumpectomy, a small amount of normal tissue around the mass is also operated on to make sure the doctor has removed all of the cancerous tissue.

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lumpectomy helps confirm or rule out cancer. lumpectomy is also the first treatment option for some women with early-stage breast cancer. In cases where cancer is found, lumpectomy is usually done with radiation therapy to the breast to reduce the chance of the cancer coming back.

Complications of lumpectomy:

- the pain

- Infection

- Bleeding

- Temporary inflation

- Breast tenderness

- Hard tissue formation at the surgical site

- Changes in the shape and appearance of the breast, especially if a large part is lost.

 

Mastectomy:

Mastectomy is surgery to remove all breast tissue as a way to treat or prevent breast cancer.

For people with early-stage breast cancer, a mastectomy may be a treatment option. Breast protection surgery (lumpectomy) in which only the tumor is removed from the breast may be another option. Deciding between a mastectomy and a lumpectomy can be difficult. Both methods are equally effective in preventing the recurrence of breast cancer. But lumpectomy is not a good option for all breast cancer patients, and patients prefer to have a mastectomy.

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New mastectomy techniques can maintain breast skin and a more natural appearance of the breast. Surgery to restore a patient's breast shape (called breast reconstruction) may be performed at the same time as a mastectomy or during a second operation the next day.

Complications of mastectomy:

  • the pain
  • Infection
  • Bleeding
  • Shoulder pain and stiffness
  • Possibility of swelling (lymphadenoma) in the armpit
  • Accumulation of blood at the surgical site (hematoma)
  • Formation of hard tissue at the surgical site
  • Numbness, especially under the arm, of lymph node resection

     

Sentinel node biopsy:

Sentinel node biopsy is a surgery performed to determine if cancer in a primary tumor has spread to a patient's lymphatic system. This disease is mostly used in the evaluation of breast cancer and melanoma. Sentinel nodules are the first lymph nodes in which a tumor drains. Sentinel node biopsy involves injecting a tracer material that helps the surgeon detect Sentinel nodules during surgery. Sentinel nodes are tested and analyzed in the laboratory.

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If the sentinel nodules are cancer-free, it is unlikely that the cancer has spread, and extra lymph nodes must not be removed. If a lymph node biopsy shows senile cancer, your doctor may recommend lymph node surgery.

Complications of Sentinel Node Biopsy:

Sentinel node biopsy is generally a safe procedure. But like any surgery, it has its side effects, including:

* Infection

* Lymphedema

* Bleeding

* Pain or bruising at the biopsy site

* Allergic reaction to the dye used in this method


Breast reconstruction 

Breast reconstruction with incision surgery:

Breast reconstruction is a surgical procedure that returns the patient's breast shape to its normal shape after a mastectomy. Breast reconstruction with flap or incision surgery is a complex procedure in which part of the patient's body tissue (often the abdomen) is removed and replaced with the operated part of the breast.

Breast reconstruction with flap surgery is performed by a plastic surgeon. It can be performed simultaneously with a mastectomy (immediate reconstruction) or after a mastectomy in a separate surgery (delayed reconstruction).

The plastic surgeon may recommend a two-step procedure. The first step is to place a prosthesis at the surgical site and the second step is to complete the reconstruction. The patient may need another operation to perform nipple reconstruction.

Breast reconstruction with flap surgery is a major procedure and there is a possibility of significant complications, including:

- Infection

- Bleeding

- Loss of breast tissue

- Changes in the feeling of the breasts

- Surgery and anesthesia and long-term recovery

- Loss of sensation performed at the surgical site

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Breast reconstruction with prosthetic implants:

In breast reconstruction with implants, he uses breast implants. Implants are silicone devices filled with silicone gel or saline that are used to reshape a patient's breasts. Breast reconstruction with implants is a complex procedure performed by a plastic surgeon. The breast reconstruction process can begin at the time of the patient's mastectomy (immediate reconstruction), or it can be performed later (delayed reconstruction). The breast reconstruction process usually requires two or more procedures.

In breast reconstruction with implantation, complications are possible, including:

- Infection

- Bleeding

- Breast pain

- Rupture or swelling of the implant

- Delay in cutting incisions

- Changes in breast sensation

- Risks associated with anesthesia

- Breasts that do not match in size and appearance.

- Increased risk of future breast reoperation to replace or remove a breast implant

- Hardening and abnormality of the tissue that has been implanted and formed the breast tissue.

- An increased risk of cancer of a rare immune system called anaplastic large cell lymphoma (ALCL) is associated with breast implants. This danger is rarely seen.

Correction of any of these complications may require additional surgery.


The goal of breast cancer surgery is to remove the cancer cells from the breast. For those who choose breast reconstruction, another surgery may be performed at the same time as the main surgery or in a separate operation.

Adjunctive treatments for breast cancer surgery:

Adverse treatments for the disease depend on the stage of the cancer, including:

High risk of breast cancer:

People who are at high risk for breast cancer or have a long family history of the disease may have a mastectomy with immediate breast reconstruction as a surgical option. It is even possible to have a mastectomy alone.

Non-invasive breast cancer:

People with in situ ductal carcinoma (DCIS) may undergo lumpectomy, which may require further radiation therapy. Cancer (DCIS) is an abnormal cell in the milk ducts in the breast. DCIS is the first form of breast cancer and is less likely to spread through the milk duct.

Early stage breast cancer:

Small breast cancers can be done with a lumpectomy or mastectomy with or without breast reconstruction, followed by radiation therapy and, sometimes, chemotherapy, hormone therapy, or targeted therapy.

Large breast cancers:

Larger cancers are treated with mastectomy. Additional treatment with radiation therapy, chemotherapy, hormone therapy, or targeted therapy may be recommended.

Advanced breast cancer:

Breast cancers that are very advanced or have spread to multiple lymph nodes are often first treated with chemotherapy, hormone therapy, or targeted therapy to shrink the tumor and make surgery easier. These cancers may be removed with a mastectomy or lumpectomy, followed by radiation therapy.

Recurrent breast cancer:

Breast cancer that returns after initial treatment can be removed with surgery and side treatments.

Surgery is rarely used to treat breast cancer that has spread to other parts of the body (metastatic cancer).


Complications of breast cancer surgery

Breast cancer surgery is a safe procedure, but there is a risk of some complications after it, including:

  • the pain
  • Infection
  • Bleeding
  • Permanent wound
  • Swelling of the arm (lymph node)
  • Delay in wound healing
  • Accumulation of fluids at the operation site
  • Drug-related risks (anesthesia) such as muscle aches and vomiting
  • Loss or change in sensation in the breast and reconstructed breasts

 Preparing for breast cancer surgery

For Breast Surgery An initial appointment with a breast cancer surgeon can help the patient understand treatment options and the type of surgery.

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Better preparation for an appointment with a doctor The patient can prepare a list of questions to ask the doctor, such as:

- How many surgeries do I need?

- Which surgery is best for me?

- Is surgery safe for me?

- What are my options for rebuilding?

- How long is he hospitalized?

- How much of my breasts do I need to have removed?

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-Should I have surgery on my healthy breast at the same time?

- Can reconstruction be done at the same time as my cancer surgery?

- How long do I need to rest? When can I return to work?

- How should I take care of my breasts after the operation?

- Do my breasts look the same after surgery?

Breast cancer surgeons work with plastic surgeons who perform breast reconstruction. If the patient is planning to have -- -breast reconstruction, talk to your doctor about discussing these options as well. 


After patient surgery:

* It is transferred to a recovery room to control the patient's blood pressure, pulse and respiration.

* A bandage will be placed on the surgical site.

* The patient may feel numbness and pain in the axilla.

* The patient may also be prescribed painkillers and antibiotics.

* The patient can take a shower the day after surgery.

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